• Life-cycle analysis of energy and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive fuels in India: Part 2—Well-to-wheels analysis
    Author: Patil V, Shanty V, Himabindu M and Ravikrishna R V
    Source: Energy 96:p.699–712
    Keywords: greenhouse gas emissions, automotive fuels
    Year: 2016
    Author Affiliation: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012, India
    Abstract:In the second part of the two-part study, the results of the Tank-to-Wheels study reported in the first part are combined with Well-to-Tank (WTT) results in this paper to provide a comprehensive Well-to-Wheels (WTW) energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions evaluation of automotive fuels in India. The results indicate that liquid fuels derived from petroleum have WTT efficiencies in the range of 75–85 per cent with liquefied petroleum gas being the most efficient fuel in the WTT stage with 85 per cent efficiency. Electricity has the lowest efficiency of 20 per cent, which is mainly attributed to its dependence on coal and 25.4 per cent losses during transmission and distribution. The complete WTW results show diesel vehicles to be the most efficient among all configurations, specifically the diesel-powered split hybrid electric vehicle. Hydrogen engine configurations are the least efficient due to low efficiency of production of hydrogen from natural gas. Hybridizing electric vehicles reduces the WTW greenhouse gas emissions substantially with split hybrid configuration being the most efficient. Electric vehicles do not offer any significant improvement over gasoline-powered configurations; however, a shift towards renewable sources for power generation and reduction in losses during transmission and distribution can make it a feasible option in the future.

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