• Life-cycle analysis of energy and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive fuels in India: Part 1—Tank-to-Wheel analysis
    Author: Gupta S, Patil V, Himabindu M, and Ravikrishna R V
    Source: Energy 96:p.684–698
    Keywords: automotive fuels
    Year: 2016
    Author Affiliation: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012, India
    Abstract:As part of a two-part life cycle efficiency and greenhouse gas emission analysis for various automotive fuels in the Indian context, this paper presents the first part, that is, Tank-to-Wheel (TTW) analysis of various fuel/powertrain configurations for a subcompact passenger car. This is the first study to consider TTW analysis for a subcompact (B-segment) passenger car. Moreover, this study uses the Indian drive cycle for TTW energy use and CO2 emission evaluation, which is again a first. The TTW analysis was applied to 28 fuel/powertrain configurations using fuels such as gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and hydrogen with various conventional and hybrid electric powertrains. The gasoline equivalent fuel economy and carbon dioxide emission results in individual fuel/powertrain configuration, which is evaluated and compared. It is found that the split hybrid configuration is best among hybrids as it leads to fuel economy improvement as well as carbon dioxide emissions reduction by 20–40 per cent over the Indian drive cycle. Further, engine efficiency, engine on–off time, and regenerative braking energy assessment is done to evaluate the causes for higher energy efficiency of hybrid electric vehicles. The hybridization increases average engine efficiency by 10–60 per cent, which includes 19–23 per cent of energy recovered at wheel through regenerative braking over the drive cycle. Overall, the TTW energy use and efficiency results are evaluated for all fuel/powertrain configurations that show battery electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicles, and diesel hybrids are near and long-term energy-efficient vehicle configurations.

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